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  • 13 Jul 2019 5:25 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Elmer Dixon, President
    Executive Diversity Services

    Whether you are a seasoned HR professional, advising a client or hiring your own first employee, these tips serve as good reminders of good practices to support diverse staffing... The secret is maintaining community relationships year round. Having a staff that represents a diversity of background and perspectives doesn’t happen by accident. It takes commitment, strategy and planning.

    Here are tips to support diverse staffing, to get you started or serve as a reminder in your work with clients or in your own business:

    • Use community resources including key individuals, organizations and campuses that target services and membership for women and ethnic populations.
    • Develop and maintain personal relationships and networks in target communities on an ongoing basis, not just when you want to fill job openings.
    • Identify individuals within your organization who might help recruit from specific target communities.
    • Examine your current workforce for recruiting potential, for example, individuals who can be developed through job training or position competencies.
    • Provide information to applicants about any organizational benefits that might be attractive to diverse populations, e.g., new employee orientation, professional and personal development opportunities, mentoring programs, employee support groups, buddy systems, etc.

  • 13 Jul 2019 5:04 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Coming Events

    October 30-November 2, 2019

    SIETAR USA National Conference, From Adversity to Diversity: The Role of the Interculturalist, Atlanta, GA


    July Holidays

    July 16: Asalha Puja, or Dharma Day, is a celebration of Buddha’s first teachings.

    July 18: Nelson Mandela International Day, launched on July 18, 2009, in recognition of Nelson Mandela’s birthday via unanimous decision of the U.N. General Assembly. It was inspired by a call Nelson Mandela made a year earlier for the next generation to take on the burden of leadership in addressing the world’s social injustices: “It is in your hands now”. It is more than a celebration of Mandela’s life and legacy; it is a global movement to honor his life’s work and to change the world for the better.

    July 23: The birthday of Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia whom the Rastafarians consider to be their savior.

    July 24: Pioneer Day, observed by the Mormons to commemorate the arrival in 1847 of the first Latter Day Saints pioneer in Salt Lake Valley.

    July 26: Disability Independence Day, celebrating the anniversary of the 1990 signing of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    July 30: International Day of Friendship, proclaimed in 2011 by the U.N. General Assembly with the idea that friendship between peoples, countries, cultures and individuals can inspire peace efforts and build bridges between communities.

    August Holidays

    August 10-11 (sundown to sundown): Waqf al Arafa, the second day of pilgrimage within the Islamic faith.

    August 10-11 (sundown to sundown): Waqf al Arafa, the second day of pilgrimage within the Islamic faith.

    August 12-15: Eid al-Adha, an Islamic festival to commemorate the willingness of Ibrahim (also known as Abraham) to follow Allah's (God's) command to sacrifice his son, Ishmael. Muslims around the world observe this event.

    August 13-15: Obon (Ulambana), a Buddhist festival and Japanese custom for honoring the spirits of ancestors.

    August 15: Hungry Ghost Festival, a Chinese holiday where street, market, and temple ceremonies take place to honor dead ancestors and appease other spirits.

    August 15: Raksha Bandhan, a Hindu holiday commemorating the loving kinship between a brother and sister. “Raksha” means “protection” in Hindi and symbolizes the longing a sister has to be protected by her brother. During the celebration, a sister ties a string around her brother’s (or brother-figure’s) wrist and asks him to protect her. The brother usually gives the sister a gift and agrees to protect her for life.

    Holidays list courtesy of: https://www.diversitybestpractices.com/2019-diversity-holidays

  • 09 Jul 2019 8:51 AM | Karen Fouts (Administrator)

    A Few Items You Might Want to Know About - July 2019

    SIETAR USA NEWSLETTER: The Interculturalist: A Periodical of SIETAR USA is being prepared and will be ready to deploy next week. Articles include Craig Storti’s Bookmarks reviewing Michelle Gelfand’s Rule Makers/Rule Breakers, an article by Elmer Dixon, a Thiagi Training Tip, information about the conference and more. Watch for the email (check your 'Promotions' and spam just in case it goes there by mistake!).

    SIETAR USA CONFERENCE: All the information is in and the conference registration application is being formulated this week. We will let you know just as soon as registration is live! Presenters will hear very soon from the program committee regarding their proposals.

    SIETAR USA is taking a summer break, and webinars will resume in September. Meanwhile, SIETAR EUROPA is holding a webinar this month: "From Clashes to Creativity: TEAM READINESS for (Culturally) Diverse Teams" will be presented by Ursula Brinkmann, PhD., on July 16, 2019. For more information and to register for this webinar, click here.

    SIETAR ITALIA has started a crowdfunding campaign to support a book they would like to develop and publish. Visit http://sostieni.link/21183 to learn more and participate!

  • 10 Jun 2019 9:55 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    SIETAR Europa held its biannual congress May 27th to June 2nd in the historic city of Leuven, Belgium. I attended this well-organized event and saw many similarities and some differences between the conferences of our two organizations. Their theme this year—somewhat similar to the SIETAR USA theme—addressed diversity and inclusion: Building Dialogs on Diversity—Towards a Future of Hope. Joyce Jenkins, President prior to the congress wrote in their program: “This theme is timely, given the problems and polarisations we see around the world today. It is also dear to the hearts of those involved in intercultural education, training and research, who approach diversity in a spirit of positivity. The congress continues our endeavor to promote and design dialogues which help us explore differences and derive lessons from them, building common ground towards a future of hope.” 

    Some similarities and differences between the two conference structures: SIETAR Europa had 5 tracks, SIETAR USA also uses a track system as a way to recruit and group similar sessions. Their tracks were Business and Organizational Challenges; Socio-political Concerns; Migration: Education and Intercultural Professions; and a 5th Academic Research track. They have 3 days of pre-congress workshops and post congress workshops as well whereas SIETAR USA has just one day of Master Workshops. The SIETAR EU schedule resembles the one SIETAR USA uses but we offer sessions of 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The structure of their program is all 90-minute presentations (except for the TED-style talks which were 30-minute sessions grouped into sets of 3 presentations plus discussion). They begin each day with two keynote addresses and go to the end of the day on Saturday (we usually end early so Saturday is a half day for us).

    One significant difference was that SIETAR Europa has had a Film Festival since their conference in Sofia, Bulgaria in 2007. They screen documentaries which have the added value in reaching people in a different more emotional way. According to their program: “Documentaries can be very useful as teaching and learning tools in education.  During this congress, SIETAR, again, offers opportunities on how to use films or film fragments for intercultural, virtual teaching, training and coaching.” Each film was followed by discussion of the content and each track was represented by two documentaries. I went to 3 of them and was most impressed with their selection. I was most moved by a film called “Nice People” that dealt with a small town in the backlands of Sweden that was attempting to accommodate 3,000 Somalis. A local journalist had the idea of letting sport unite the people so men who had never known temperatures below freezing or ice skating, were taught Bandy ice hockey. The film follows the intense, heartbreaking, comical struggle to get the team (the first national Bandy Ice Hockey Team of Somalia) ready for the championship tournament in Siberia. I have to admit to both laughing and crying.

    The venue for the congress was Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven campus located at the edge of town and reached by bus. Participants stayed in hotels and B&Bs all over town. Some of us bought our lunches on the way to the bus since you could register and pay for a box lunch but we didn’t all choose that option. By having our USA conferences in hotels, lunch is provided as part of registration. Probably the biggest overall difference between the two conferences is the venue. 

    Whova played an important role in creating a sense of community. We will have Whova available at the SIETAR USA conference too. We will let you know when you can sign up for Whova. It’s fun and informative.

    A culminating event was the gala banquet on Friday evening. The new President of SIETAR Europa was “crowned” and she is an American Expat currently living in Ireland: Tamara Cherie Thorpe. Tamara was the head of the SIETAR USA scholarship committee for many years and has served in other governance capacities. She is also our June webinar speaker.I know it is difficult to get a picture of an event that you didn’t attend. I hope it is interesting for you to see that we share some ways of organizing our conferences as well as some differences. The bottom line is that the people make the conference. I was so proud of the large number of American participants and especially the American presenters. They were the best! But I must say that the Europeans (and international presenters) did a fine job as well. 

    According to current plans, SIETAR USA will get on an every other year schedule such that the year that SIETAR Europa has its congress, we will not have a conference in the United States. To do that, SIETAR USA will hold a conference next year (2020 which is our 20th anniversary) and then not again until 2022. That makes it quite possible to attend the conference in Europe one year and in the United States the following year. I hope that brings many more Europeans to our conferences and vice versa—many more Americans attending their congresses. European and American collaboration has long been a hallmark of SIETAR. I look forward to a close relationship between SIETAR Europa and SIETAR USA in the coming years.

    Sandra M. Fowler
    President, SIETAR USA

  • 10 Jun 2019 9:50 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    There are 4 open positions on the Board of Directors. We are looking for good volunteers to fill those open spots on the SIETAR USA Board. Interested? Let’s talk. Please contact us at info@sietarsusa.org for more information

  • 10 Jun 2019 9:34 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    SIETAR USA commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Uprising (also known as the Stonewall Riots or Rebellion). Pride Month, which began June 1st is a time to reflect on the vast cultural change over the past 50 years—it is a time to celebrate the progress in civil rights for the LGBTQ community since the uprising. However, Pride is relevant as long as any discrimination exits and there is still an undercurrent of inequity. Despite many steps forward over the 5 decades, a conscious erosion of civil rights is present in the current administration.

    LGBTQ people across the country and around the world celebrate Pride Month with parades, parties, rallies and other events. During Pride Month, gay rights get more attention from news media making it a great opportunity to learn more about the issues and to get involved. SIETAR USA will continue to use the platform of our annual conference in Atlanta to support our LGBT members.

    Stonewall, set in the activist decade of the 1960s began on June 28, 1969. The Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City's West Village, was the location of the civil protest that began when bar patrons and area residents, tired of harassment allowed by law, clashed with police officers who had come to raid the nightspot. Turbulence and demonstrations continued for the next several nights. Those events were not the first resistance act of the gay rights movement, but they galvanized activism in the United States and around the world, leading to many achievements and ultimately resulting in the Marriage Equality Act of 2015.

    SIETAR USA, since its inception, has included and welcomed LGBTQ members who have served on the Board of Directors and presented at the conferences. We have had at least one LGBTQ session at each conference since our first conference in 2000. For example, in the year 2000 in Fairfax, VA Rita Wuebbeler and David Beverly presented a session on Expat Gay Employees: Issues and Concerns. In San Diego in 2017 Rob Pusch and Randall Stieghorst discussed the worldviews of gay men and transgendered persons in their session Strategies for Understanding the Impact of Formative Factors: Gay and Trans Identities. In Spokane in 2010, Randy and Rob were joined by Rebecca Parrilla, Susan Gore, Rita Wuebbeler, and Vivek Saxena to explore the Cultural Values of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities. Many years ago, a GLBT (yes, that’s what it was called) scholarship was established to attract and support members of the LGBTQ community to SIETAR conferences. Further, for many years the Pride Special Interest Group has been the most active SIG.

    We are grateful for the contributions of our LGBTQ members in all aspects of the association – from governance to the conferences—and wish them well in their fight for freedom from discrimination, respect, dignity, and their very human rights.

    (NYC Pride image by gagnonm1993 from Pixabay)

  • 10 Jun 2019 9:23 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Interview with Joe Lurie, Executive Director Emeritus, UC Berkeley International House

    With this month’s column, we’re happy to bring back our author interview feature. Our last two authors, Ursula Le Guin and Freya Stark, were deceased, but Joe is very much alive, and we’re happy to present his thoughts.

    1. Why did you write this book?

    With YouTubes, tweets and fake news crossing cultures instantly and without context and with a surge of migrants encountering new hosts from different countries for the first time and without preparation, I sensed a growing collision of cultures. The alarming increase in intercultural misperceptions and miscommunications makes it more essential than ever to understand the actual meanings and intentions behind words and actions which may seem abnormal, provocative, even threatening. And so I wrote the book to heighten awareness of these misunderstandings and to provide tools for understanding culture clashes in the news of the day, in business, technology, diplomacy, language, religion, generational divides and migration. In a recent talk I illustrated a key theme in the book by showing how and why a simple bus seat in Norway was widely perceived as a burqua! https://youtu.be/EG_pv0gTNvY

    2. What is the most important thing you want readers to take away from this book?

    An awareness of how the limitations of our experiences, no matter how extensive, within and across cultures, can blind us to and distort the underlying reality and meaning of behaviors, values, and beliefs never before encountered. As a 4th century Chinese poem ponders: "How shall I explain the sea to a frog that has never left its pond?" Or, as noted in this video clip, how all of us are in a sense locked in a perceptual cage of finite experiences. https://youtu.be/aIVsmbhi3RI

    3. Name one or two books in our field that influenced you the most, that you think all interculturalists should be familiar with? Why?

    The Geography of Thought-How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and Why  by Richard E, Nisbett. A fascinating exploration of common East/West cultural contrasts that explains how differing world views and behaviors are often rooted in contrasting social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China. It's a thought-provoking challenge to the widespread assumption among cognitive scientists that thinking across cultures is fundamentally the same.

    The scholarly article "Cross-Cultural Training Across The Individualism-Collectivism Divide" by Triandis, Brislin and Hui. I use this superb tool in my classes and training sessions, not only to help explain these contrasts but more importantly to provide powerful guidance for individualists on how to understand and interact with collectivists, and vice-versa.

    4. What is one of the most significant, most memorable cross-cultural experiences you have had?

    As a Peace Corps Volunteer in Kenya and as one who is heterosexual, I was shocked and deeply disturbed when men held my hand for extended periods of time while strolling or engaged in casual conversation .It took awhile to understand that this had nothing to do with homosexuality, that throughout Africa, parts of the Middle East and Asia this is a common male heterosexual behavior. This experience was my awakening to how culture can shape the meaning of behavior, and it was the origin and inspiration for a lifetime of intercultural discoveries.

    5. If you could pass on only one insight/one lesson learned to others about crossing cultures, what would you say?

    When encountering someone from another culture whose behavior seems confusing, bizarre or offensive, think of the West African Dogon proverb, "The Stranger Sees only What He Knows," then pause and ask yourself: What else could this mean?

    6. This newsletter goes to nearly 1,000 readers, folks who are either in or interested in the field of intercultural communications. If you’d like to say something else to these folks, something we have not asked about in this questionnaire, feel free to add your brief comments here.

    To better cope with the disrupting forces of globalization, the expanded 2018 edition of my book offers a broad array of interactive questions and activities at the end of each chapter, including some from Cultural Detective's superb internationally tested, research-based, on-line intercultural competence tool box. All of the questions and activities are designed to develop and heighten cultural self-awareness and sensitivity to and understanding across cultures among students and professionals of all backgrounds and fields of interest.

  • 10 Jun 2019 9:15 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Perception and Deception: A Mind-Opening Journey Across Cultures, Joe Lurie, Cultural Detective, 2018, 235 pages. Reviewed by Craig Storti

    You’re going to love Joe Lurie. It’s important to get that on the record straight away because although this book is not entirely a first-person narrative, much of it is. And if you don’t warm to the person in a first-person narrative, you’re in for a long slog. But Joe is so genuine, so modest—so charming—you’ll be quite content to linger in his company.

    Now it’s time for an embarrassing confession. When I was first asked to review this book, I was skeptical. Perception and Deception is basically a series of colorful, amusing, and sometimes poignant anecdotes illustrating all manner of cultural differences, a collection of the kind of stories we have all heard before, most probably early on in our intercultural career. My first reaction, in short, was: This is pretty basic; there’s not much new here.

    My second reaction was: How elitist and patronizing. Basic for whom? Nothing new to whom? Maybe not to professional interculturalists, but not everyone is a professional interculturalist, including folks who read this newsletter. There are neophyte or beginning interculturalists, for example, and there are lots of folks who’ve never even heard the words intercultural or cross-cultural but who might be intrigued if someone bothered to introduce them to this world. Which is exactly what Joe Lurie, to his enormous credit, is trying to do with Perception and Deception. Joe is not trying to impress experienced interculturalists; he’s trying to create new ones. Are we all so interculturally evolved that we can no longer remember a time when we first encountered a cultural difference—for many of us of a certain generation that was probably the time a foreign exchange student came to our high school—and were bowled over and utterly fascinated? And wanted to learn more?

    Our field needs more books like this, books we can hand to young people who have shown a budding interest in culture and want to read about it, or even to mature adults who’ve just never thought about culture. But these folks don’t want theory or paradigms; they want incidents, examples. They want stories. And Perception and Deception is full of them. Here are three to give you a feel for the book.

    Ideas of how respect is perceived across cultures is illustrated in an exchange that took place during an official visit of a U. S. delegation to China in 1978, shortly after US-Chinese diplomatic relations reopened. While touring an important Beijing cemetery, one U. S. delegate noticed oranges placed on many gravesites. Jokingly, he asked the Chinese guide, “When will you ancestors come up to eat the oranges?” The guide paused and then, clearly irritated, answered: “When your ancestors come up to smell the flowers.”

    Ayaka was often shaken by her coworkers’ directness. For example when she asked, “Can we review the agenda?” her coworker replied curtly, “No. I don’t have time now.” In the Japanese workplace people aren’t so direct and confrontational, Ayaka explained. In Japan the response might be, “Please let me think about that.” Japanese know that sentence means “No.” This behavior reminded me of the wonderful book, Sixteen Ways to Avoid Saying No. Author Masaaki Imai explains that one way to say “no” in Japanese is to say “yes.” It is not surprising that another of his books is titled Never Take Yes for an Answer.

    When marketing across cultures, and even within countries, companies must be sensitive to language…. A British company spent millions of dollars launching its new curry sauce, Bundh, but the negative response among curry-loving Punjabi speakers was surprising; in Punjabi bundh means “ass.” When Microsoft was promoting its search engine Bing in China, it discovered that in Mandarin Chinese bing sounds like “illness” and it can also mean “pancake,” depending on which tone (3rd or 4th) is used. Microsoft changed the name to the more commercially appealing biying—which means “seek and you shall find” (James Hookway, Wall Street Journal, June 5, 2012).

    To be sure, stories like these, as wonderful as they are, start to lose their punch when they are repeated one after the other, page after page. That’s a challenge in a book like this, but Lurie knows the risk and has addressed the redundancy problem by creating categories; so there are stories about the news of the day, business, technology, diplomacy, language, religion, generational divides, and migration. If the stories start to blur, just put the book down for a while; a book such as Perception and Deception is not meant to be read at one sitting.

    I’ve saved the best for last: the cover. It features the back of a man’s completely shaved head with the words Militant? Monk? Punk? Patient? superimposed on it. Brilliant. Actually, that’s the cover of the 2nd edition; if anything, the cover of the first edition is even better. It features the face of a cow looking directly at you with the words: What am I? Divine? Dowry? Dinner? Is there anyone who could resist opening a book with that cover?

    To recap: this book is basic. And we should all be grateful because now we have the perfect book to show people when they ask us what we do, when we tell them, and then when they say: “Really? Cultures can’t be all that different.”

  • 10 Jun 2019 8:58 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Insight is essential to vision. The first insight underlying the original vision for the intercultural field came more than 40 years ago.

    The first insight was this: Thousands of men and women in many parts of the world are working every day with individuals and groups whose backgrounds are very different from their own. Their work is important to them, to their communities, to social justice and peace. Intercultural competence is essential to their effectiveness. Among these women and men are diplomats, teachers, international students, corporate managers, inner city social workers, medical doctors and nurses, journalists, military personnel, interpreters and translators.

    A second insight underlying the original vision was this: these men and women all face similar intercultural challenges and require similar intercultural knowledge and skills. Therefore, they are a part of a significant professional community but are not aware of it. They have many colleagues -- interesting, capable colleagues, but don't realize this.

    A third insight: Many of these men and women do their intercultural work alone. And most were not prepared during their education for the intercultural aspects of their responsibilities.

    The vision then was this: To enable every one of these women and men to do their important intercultural work more effectively. This was to be accomplished through establishing a communications network and providing relevant materials. The network (newsletters, conferences, and directories) would enable them to contact and learn from one another. The materials (books, articles, research reports, course and program designs, and the many "fugitive materials" being developed) would enable them to build their intercultural knowledge.

    Access to colleagues and their best work was the key. Contributing one's own best work to colleagues was even more important.

    The larger, longer term vision was to create a whole new, fully legitimate field in the Social Sciences. This field would have its own distinctive standards, methods, body of literature, concepts and theories. A critical part of the conceptual foundation had been provided by Edward T. Hall when he recognized and demonstrated brilliantly the connection between culture and communication.

    This new field would draw on the relevant parts of the established academic disciplines in the social sciences, natural sciences and humanities. It might, therefore, actually become the first real Interdiscipline. And it would be the first field to consistently integrate theory with practice and to achieve consistent collaboration between researchers, teachers and trainers.

    With a substantial, creative field supporting them, the thousands of men and women engaged in intercultural relations around the world would gain credibility and capability.

    In fact, they would gain a significant new professional identity.

    David Hoopes was the first to articulate and passionately pursue this vision. He and Toby Frank built the original SIETAR, both its organization and its spirit.

    The results, the first members of SIETAR hoped, would be intercultural courses from kindergarten through graduate school, Intercultural Communication Workshops on university campuses across the U.S., illuminating research into all kinds of intercultural relations, intercultural training in all major multinational corporations, intercultural competence in government agencies (both local and national), intercultural specialists in the United Nations, and intercultural specialists involved at the center of every major urban and international conflict.

    The first members genuinely believed that widespread intercultural competence could have major social consequences, even political consequences.

    The inaugural SIETAR Conference was held in 1975. The Society then grew to 2,000 members.

    A State of the Art Study was conducted. This was funded by a grant to SIETAR from the Kettering Foundation. Some of the findings:

    • 541 organizations were involved in intercultural education, training and research.
    • 31, 000 intercultural courses, training programs and research projects had been conducted in 45 states in the U.S. and in 89 other countries. These had involved 990,000 students and trainees.

    SIETAR International was established. It included a Regional Affiliate (SIETAR Europa) and several Country Affiliates (SIETAR USA, UK, Deutschland, France, Netherlands, Japan and Indonesia). It also included some Local Affiliates (Toronto, Calgary, Vancouver, Chicago, Houston and Metro Washington). Then, for several years, Young SIETAR was very active.

    Over the following years, SIETAR International was dissolved and many of the country and local affiliates were dissolved.

    Given the original compelling vision described above, then the creation and dissolution of SIETAR International and many of the national and local SIETARs, what are the implications for us today? And tomorrow?

    George W. Renwick, M.Div., Ph.D.

    George has attended and conducted sessions at every annual SIETAR conference since 1976. He is a founding faculty member, along with John Condon, of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication and has conducted workshops there for 41 years.

    With David Hoopes and Peggy Pusch he founded the Intercultural Press and served with them on its Board of Directors.

    As president of his consulting firm, he has completed assignments in 26 countries for 45 multinational corporations.

  • 10 Jun 2019 8:27 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Usually, at the end of an encounter with foreigners, we ruminate about what we could have said and done better. In real life, we don’t get another chance to re-do the encounter. But in this roleplay activity, that’s exactly what we do.

    Prepare a scenario. Select the type of interpersonal interaction that you want your participants to handle. Specify a few details about the role of the two people involved in this situation.

    Here’s the scenario I created for use at last year’s SIETAR-USA conference:

    I will play the role of a foreign participant who is wandering around the meeting rooms at a professional conference, looking lost. You will play role of a friendly local who wants to help him without appearing to be patronizing.

    Surprise the participants. Randomly select a participant to play the role of the person in an intercultural interaction. Explain that you will play the role of the other person, a foreigner. 

    Specify the scenario. Explain the situation in which you meet each other.

    Conduct the roleplay. Let the other person initiate the conversation. Respond to him or her in your role as a foreigner.

    Conclude the roleplay. At the end of 2 or 3 minutes, abruptly announce the end of role play.

    Repeat the roleplay. Ask the roleplaying participant if he or she has second thoughts about what could have been done better. Explain that you are going to rewind the roleplay tape and start all over again. Invite the participant to begin the roleplay again from scratch.

    Repeat with coaching from the audience. After a suitable length of time, conclude the second round. Ask the participant to mingle with the other participants and collect their suggestions for improving the interaction. Tell the roleplayer that he or she may ignore or modify any of these suggestions. As before, invite the roleplayer to start from scratch.

    Repeat the roleplay with another participant. After about 2 minutes, invite someone else to replace the roleplayer. Use the same scenario and roles. If time permits, conduct two or three more rounds.

    Debrief. Begin with the roleplaying participants. Ask them to recall the changes they made between the rounds and the reasons for these changes. Also ask them what they would do differently if they were to start all over again. Invite other participants for their comments about what they observed and how they would coach future roleplayers.

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